21st Century Trends

21st Century Trends

  1. Politics: Everyone turns to politics. From celebrities to sports stars, everyone aspires to join politics.
  2. Politics get cleaner.
  3. Industry: Business and entrepreneurship get more popular. Popularity of business soars.
  4. The marriage of materialism and meditation: People are no longer afraid of stress, but learn to cope with the stress associated with materialism.
  5. Innovation and the Arts: People rekindle their childhood love for science, technology and literature.
  6. Nationalism rises.
  7. Big science, big tech go private: The race to space has already gone private. Big science (genomics, brain science, nuclear and particle physics), big tech (AI, nanotech).
  8. Mathematics marvels: From big data we move on to applied mathematics and big data. New quantitative sciences emerge. Machine learning models become mathematical models and equations.
  9. Leaders turn to Economics.
  10. Armed forces power, influence increases.
  11. Spiritual power: Spiritual power in the hands of many.
  12. The joy of Christianity: Christian beliefs spread across the world.
  13. The brilliant class: The emergence of ultra all round achievers.
  14. Academia: Polymath professors.
  15. New kinds of families (to emerge).
  16. Academia: Focus on research.
  17. Industry: The dream of ownership of conglomerates.
  18. Education: Students learn critical thinking, problem solving and creativity skills. Learn how to learn.
  19. Self help industry gets bigger. The perception of IQ changes. IQ is no longer seen as static.
  20. Realization deepens. People understand with heart, express from heart.
  21. Women empowerment.
  22. Public finance gets bigger.
  23. Entertainment industry: Everyone wishes to get to the entertainment industry.
  24. Competition intensifies: in the areas of sports, intellectual competitions.
  25. Engineering becomes a more popular choice.
  26. Multiple positions for the same person: Due to increased productivity, globalization.
  27. Government: Leaders become more work-oriented. Government gets more productive.
  28. Government compensation gets bigger. Has long-term consequences. Political, Government employment as career.
  29. Army input to Government.
  30. The return of God: People turn to religions after about half a century of atheism.
  31. Social media for societal transformation.
  32. Climate change: Climate change becomes a hot topic. Climate activists get vocal.
  33. Politics: Activism (political, societal causes) get bigger.
  34. Religious institutions get more powerful.
  35. Healthcare: Doctors turn to research and innovation.
  36. Academia: Textbook and Nonfiction writing become popular.
  37. Expertise: After a century of narrow expertise, experts emerge with not only broad knowledge but wide expertise.
  38. Government decentralization.
  39. Improvement of law and order situation.
  40. Newspaper, magazine readership increases (in the West).
  41. Nations strive towards self sufficiency.
  42. East: Religious prohibition gets flexible.

21st Century Trends Categorized

Government and Politics

  1. Politics: Everyone turns to politics. From celebrities to sports stars, everyone aspires to join politics.
  2. Politics get cleaner.
  3. Leaders turn to Economics
  4. Public finance gets bigger.
  5. Improvement of law and order situation.
  6. Climate change: Climate change becomes a hot topic. Climate activists get vocal.
  7. Government compensation gets bigger. Has long-term consequences. Political, Government employment as career.
  8. Politics: Activism (political, societal causes) get bigger.
  9. Government decentralization.
  10. Army input to Government.
  11. Armed forces power, influence increases.
  12. Government: Leaders become more work-oriented. Government gets more productive.
  13. Newspaper, magazine readership increases (in the West).
  14. Women empowerment.

Business and Industry

  1. Big science, big tech go private: The race to space has already gone private. Big science (genomics, brain science, nuclear and particle physics), big tech (AI, nanotech).
  2. Industry: Business and entrepreneurship get more popular. Popularity of business soars.
  3. Industry: The dream of ownership of conglomerates.
  4. Engineering becomes a more popular choice.
  5. Entertainment industry: Everyone wishes to get to the entertainment industry.

Academia

  1. Academia: Polymath professors.
  2. Academia: Focus on research.
  3. Academia: Textbook and Nonfiction writing become popular.

Science, Technology and the Arts:

  1. Mathematics marvels: From big data to applied mathematics and big data. New quantitative sciences emerge. Machine learning models become mathematical models and equations.
  2. Innovation and the Arts: People rekindle their childhood love for science and literature.

Expertise:

  1. Expertise: After a century of narrow expertise, experts emerge with not only broad knowledge but wide expertise.
  2. The brilliant class: The emergence of ultra all round achievers.
  3. Competition intensifies: in the areas of sports, intellectual competitions.
  4. Multiple positions for the same person: Due to increased productivity, globalization.

Nations:

  1. Nationalism rises.
  2. Nations strive towards self sufficiency.

Education:

  1. Education: Students learn critical thinking, problem solving and creativity skills. Learn how to learn.
  2. Self help industry gets bigger. The perception of IQ change: IQ is no longer seen as static.
  3. Realization deepens. People understand with heart, express from heart.

Religion:

  1. The joy of Christianity: Christian beliefs spread across the world.
  2. The return of God: People turn to religions after about half a century of atheism.
  3. Spiritual power: Spiritual power in the hands of many.
  4. Religious institutions get more powerful.
  5. East: Religious prohibition gets flexible.

Healthcare

  1. Healthcare: Doctors turn to research and innovation.

People and Living:

  1. The marriage of materialism and meditation: People are no longer afraid of stress, but learn to cope with the stress associated with materialism.
  2. New kinds of families (to emerge).

Organized Thinking: Managing Knowledge Complexity in Our Mind

 

Mental models

A mental model is an explanation of someone’s thought process about how something works in the real world.
Anything is easy if one can assimilate it to one’s collection of models.
How does one effectively go about constructing mental models?

  • Imagination

Imagination increases the capacity of our working memory. Once you learn to ‘imagine’, your working memory is no longer limited to “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two” [1].

Whereas linguistic thinking is linear, imagination makes non-linear (“whole” as opposed to thinking only about parts) thinking possible.

    • Thinking in 3D
    • Thinking in 4D (Space + Time)
  • Systems Thinking

Systems thinking is to see the interconnected whole.

Systems thinking facilitates and systemizes “whole” thinking.

  • System Dynamics

“System dynamics (SD) is an approach to understanding the nonlinear behavior of complex systems over time using stocks, flows, internal feedback loops, table functions and time delays” according to Wikipedia. For the purpose of this article we will consider: System dynamics as systems thinking over time.

  • Multilevel thinking

Multilevel thinking [2] is to see and consider all levels of abstraction (See Computational thinking) concerning a subject at once.

Computational Thinking

Computational thinking is used for, among other purposes, (overall / large scale) organization of knowledge.

  • Abstraction (Concepts; Naming)

“Abstraction is the process of removing physical, spatial, or temporal details or attributes in the study of objects or systems to focus attention on details of greater importance” according to Wikipedia.
Abstraction in Computer Science is related to naming.

  • Levels of abstraction
  • Knowledge Ontology

Knowledge ontology is a set of concepts and categories in a subject area or domain that shows their properties and the hierarchical relations between them.
Knowledge ontology helps us in structuring knowledge.

Levels of abstraction helps us consider large parts of knowledge at once.  Ontology helps us see all knowledge at once.

It is possible to organize all human knowledge in a single knowledge ontology.

Human knowledge

↓      ↓        ↓         ↓

←←  ←←        → →          →→

↓       ↓                   ↓              ↓

Laws of Physics       Laws of Chemistry    ……..

Scientific Thinking

  • Generalization

Science aims to explain everything we see around us at different levels of abstractions in terms of a set of general laws. As more and more areas of the world we live in and the universe become explicable by mathematical laws, the scope of generalization expands. Generalizations greatly simplify our knowledge of the world.

  • Open mind

Mathematical Thinking

  • Using Mathematics / Mathematical models
  • Mathematical Problem Solving
    • Multilevel problem solving

Mathematical problem solving is one type of knowledge inference. Both “to prove” and “to find” can be seen as inference.

 

Cognitive Skills

Memory techniques

  • Association
  • Chunking
  • Knowledge organization
  • Learning by Heart

 

Other cognitive techniques:

  • Belief / Realization: Understanding by heart

Metacognition: Thinking about thinking
Reflective thinking: Thinking about self and thinking

Other thinking techniques:

  • Big picture thinking

 

References

  1. The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information
  2. On Multi-Level Thinking and Scientific Understanding