Personal Notes On Curing Neurological / Psychiatric Diseases / Disabilities [Unofficial]


Neural Engineering

  • Artificial Retina
    • Current generation: Very low resolution.
    • “Learning to see” period.
  • Epilepsy – Implantable Electrodes, Brain Cooling, Drug Delivery
    • Implantable Devices Could Detect and Halt Epileptic Seizures – Scientific American
    • Closed Loop Devices:
      • Idea: Detecting seizure onsets and stopping them.
      • Implantable Electrodes
      • Brain Cooling
        • Detecting temperature (associated with seizures) and controlling
      • Drug Delivery 
        • Closed loop
        • Continuous, at regular intervals
      • Challenges for Closed Loop Devices:
        • False positives: Detecting normal activities as seizures.
    • Open loop devices
      • VNS – Vagus Nerve Stimulation (from 1997)
      • Deep brain stimulation
        • Some people have too many seizures; stopping some would be considered as progress.
    • Second generation Closed Loop Devices
      • Not just detecting onset of seizures; rather predicting seizures before they even start.

  • Body Amputation
  • Cochlear Implant
  • Brain Computer Interfacing
  • Tom Mitchell & others applying Machine Learning Techniques to find correlations in 
    • neural firing patterns, spikes and 
    • behavior / thought.
  • Techniques, broadly defined:
    • Neuromechanics
    • Neuromodulation
    • Neural Repair and Regenesis
  • Optogenetics
  • Connectomics [2]
  • Neural patterns should be analogous to what is out there in the world (VS Ramachandran – Similarity of letters, image, sound [3]). Neural processing is modular (Vision – modules for color, shape, etc.).





References

  1. A Guideline For Research In Neuroscience
  2. Connectomics
  3. Reith Lectures by V S Ramachandran
    1. [Personal Note: I have always been fascinated by the study of human mind and brain. While I was in college, I came across the Reith Lectures by V S Ramachandran Googling topics as diverse as “Neuroscience”, “Brain”, “Neurology”! Going through this set of lectures, I understood how fascinating the study of Neuroscience and Neurology are!] 
    2. [By the way, I have always been and am still Googling my way through human knowledge space!]

Personal Notes On Wolfram Language


Wolfram Language

  • Symbolic Computing – symbols representing real world entities, concepts, procedures
  • Knowledge about the world built into the language
  • Data 
    • Gathered in the course of building WolframAlpha.
  • Cloud Infrastructures, Devices and their functionalities are symbolic building blocks of the language. 
    • Symbolic Computing + Knowledge & Data 
      • Knowledge, data, real world entities represented by symbols in the programming language. 
      • You can pick a symbol from a domain and apply a procedure from another domain. Everything fits together. 
    • Builds on
      • Mathematica
      • WolframAlpha
      • Natural Language Understanding
      • Wolfram Cloud 
        • Treating it as a giant active repository for symbolic lumps of computation. 
      • CDF (Computable Document Format)
    • Injection of computation into everything.




    References

    জনতার ঐক্যের শক্তির মাধ্যমে অন্যায় এবং অন্যায়কারীকে রুখে দাঁড়ানো – ৪

    সত্যসন্ধানী সাংবাদিকদের পেটানোর দায়ে অভিযুক্ত অসভ্য ব্যক্তিদের পরিচয় উন্মোচিত এবং দৃষ্টান্তমূলক শাস্তি নিশ্চিত করা হবে 


    সাংবাদিকরা জনগণের বৃহত্তর কল্যাণের স্বার্থে সত্য অনুসন্ধান এবং প্রকাশ করেন। তারা পদাধারী ব্যক্তিদের জবাবদিহিতা নিশ্চিত করেন। এতে কোন অপরাধীর অপরাধ উন্মোচিত হওয়ার দায়ে সাংবাদিক পেটানোর মত ঘটনা ঘটান কিছু অসভ্য বর্বর অপরাধী।

    সাংবাদিকদের উপর হাত তোলার দুঃসাহস কেউ দেখালে সেই অসভ্য বর্বর ব্যক্তিদের পরিচয় সারা পৃথিবীর সামনে উন্মোচিত করা হবে এবং আইনের মুখোমুখি করা হবে।

    সারা দেশের সাংবাদিকরা এই ইস্যুতে ঐক্যবদ্ধ হবেন।     



    প্রথম আলোর বিশেষ প্রতিনিধি শিশির মোড়লের ওপর হামলার ঘটনায় অভিযুক্ত চিকিৎসক সফিউল আজমকে দৃষ্টান্তমূলক শাস্তি দেওয়া হবে। 

    প্রথম আলোর বিশেষ প্রতিনিধি শিশির মোড়লের ওপর হামলার ঘটনায় দুঃখ প্রকাশ করেছে শিকদার মেডিকেল কলেজ ও হাসপাতালের ব্যবস্থাপনা কর্তৃপক্ষ। একই সঙ্গে হামলাকারী চিকিৎসক সফিউল আজমকে সাময়িক বরখাস্ত করা হয়েছে। আজ বুধবার কলেজের অধ্যক্ষ মেজর জেনারেল (অব.) বিজয় কুমার স্বাক্ষরিত এক সংবাদ বিজ্ঞপ্তিতে এ কথা জানানো হয়।
    সংবাদ বিজ্ঞপ্তিতে জানানো হয়, শিশির মোড়লের ওপর অশোভন আচরণের ঘটনায় হাসপাতালের ব্যবস্থাপনা কর্তৃপক্ষ দুঃখিত ও মর্মাহত। এ ঘটনায় তাত্ক্ষণিকভাবে একজন অধ্যাপকের নেতৃত্বে তিন সদস্যের তদন্ত কমিটি গঠন করা হয়েছে। তদন্তের স্বার্থে চিকিৎসক সফিউল আজমকে সাময়িক বরখাস্ত করা হয়েছে। তদন্তের পর প্রয়োজনীয় ব্যবস্থা নেওয়া হবে।
    সংবাদ বিজ্ঞপ্তিতে আরও জানানো হয়, এই মুহূর্তে দেশের বাইরে থাকা হাসপাতালের চেয়ারম্যান জয়নুল হক শিকদার এ ঘটনায় দুঃখ প্রকাশ করেছেন। এ ঘটনায় প্রয়োজনীয় ব্যবস্থা নেওয়ার নির্দেশ দিয়েছেন তিনি।
    গতকাল মঙ্গলবার প্রথম আলোর বিশেষ প্রতিনিধি শিশির মোড়লকে বেদম মারধর করেন শিকদার মেডিকেল কলেজ ও হাসপাতালের চিকিৎসক সফিউল আজম ও তাঁর সহযোগীরা। সফিউল আজম সরকারি চাকরি না ছেড়ে শিকদার মেডিকেল কলেজে পূর্ণকালীন চাকরি করছেন এবং একেক সময় একেক ডিগ্রি ব্যবহার করছেন বলে অভিযোগ পেয়ে শিশির মোড়ল অভিযোগের সত্যতা যাচাই করতে শিকদার মেডিকেলে যান। সেখানে তাঁকে মারধর করা হয়। এ ঘটনায় হাজারীবাগ থানায় মামলা করেন শিশির মোড়ল।” 

    সূত্র – হামলাকারী চিকিৎসক সফিউল বরখাস্ত

    “হাসপাতালে কোন রোগী মারা গেলে বা গুরুতর আহত হলে সাংবাদিকেরা সংবাদ ও ছবি সংগ্রহ করবে এটাই স্বাভাবিক। সেখানে দায়িত্বরত চিকিৎসকদের অবহেলার বিষয়টি ধামাচাপা দিতে সাংবাদিকদের পেটানো কোন সভ্য মানুষের কাজ নয়। 


    রাজশাহী মেডিকেল কলেজে সাংবাদিকদের ওপর ডাক্তারদের হামলার প্রতিবাদে বৃহস্পতিবার বগুড়া প্রেসক্লাবে সাংবাদিক ইউনিয়ন বগুড়া’র উদ্যোগে আয়োজিত সমাবেশে সাংবাদিক নেতারা এসব কথা বলেন।

    বক্তারা বলেন, ডাক্তারি একটি মহৎ পেশা। রোগীদের ভালোমন্দ তাদের ওপর নির্ভর করে। অথচ কথায় কথায় তারা যদি আইনকে বৃদ্ধাঙ্গলী দেখিয়ে ধর্মঘট বা কর্মবিরতি পালন করেন তাহলে অসুস্থ ও আহত মানুষদের কি পরিণতি হবে। শুধু তাই নয়, আদালত থেকেও কোন আদেশ হলে সংশ্লিষ্ট ডাক্তাররা ধর্মঘট বা কর্মবিরতি পালন করে প্রশাসনের বিরুদ্ধে দুঃসাহস দেখান।

    তারা আরও বলেন, রাজশাহী মেডিকেল কলেজ হাসপাতালে ও ঢাকার মিডফোর্ড হাসপাতালে পেশাগত দায়িত্ব পালনকালে ইন্টার্ন ডাক্তারদের সাংবাদিক নির্যাতন, নিপীড়নের ঘটনা শুধু অমানবিকই নয়, বর্বরোচিত সন্ত্রাসী হামলাও বটে। সাংবাদিকের দ্রুত সঠিক চিকিৎসা সেবা নিশ্চিত করাসহ ঘটনার সঙ্গে জড়িত চিকিৎসক নামধারী সন্ত্রাসীদের আইনের আওতায় এনে দ্রুত দৃষ্টান্তমূলক শাস্তির দাবি জানাই।

    সাংবাদিক ইউনিয়ন বগুড়া’র সভাপতি সৈয়দ ফজলে রাব্বী ডলারের সভাপতিত্বে ও সাধারণ সম্পাদক মোমিনুর রশিদ সাইনের পরিচালনায় মানববন্ধনে বগুড়া প্রেসক্লাবের সভাপতি রেজাউল হাসান রানুসহ স্থানীয় সাংবাদিকেরা উপস্থিত ছিলেন।” 






    আরও 

    Personal Notes On Elementary Combinatorial Techniques [Unofficial]

    • Principle of Addition
    • Principle of Multiplication
      • Counting Permutations 
      • Counting Combinations (WIth or without repetitions)
    • Binomial Coefficients
    • Bijection
    • Partitions
    • Recurrence Relations
      • Counting in terms of smaller instances of the same problem
    • Principle of Inclusion and Exclusion
      • Overlapping sets 
    • Generating Function
    • Polya’s Method
    • Graph Theory


    Proof techniques

    • Mathematical Induction
      • Universal Proof 
    • Pigeonhole Principle
      • Existential Proof
    • Invariance Principle
      • Coloring
      • Monovariant
    • Extremal Principle


    References

    Personal Notes On Business / Entrepreneurship – 1 [Unofficial]

    1. Analyze all possible alternatives before taking decisions. 

      • Which product? Which set of features should the product have? If the features {e.g., features of a website/app} are going to be released in steps then in what order? Which set of marketing channels? In what order? Long term plans? Brand? How to utilize resources {capital, people, technology} in the best possible way?)  Pick the ones (among each set of alternatives) that seem the best (at least for the moment). One can try other alternatives if the current choice doesn’t work. (Data, Marketing, Strategy, Economics, Systems, Network Science)

    1. Gather and analyze as much market data as possible.
    2. Use quantitative/computational methods as much as possible. (Data science, Network science, Analytics, Operations research, Statistics, “Model thinking” [1] tools) Be creative. Devise your own method.
    3. Think from the customer/consumer point of view.
    4. As a manager, bring out the best in employees. Make them feel as part of the company. Make sure they take pride in company’s success, impact of its products in the real world. Introduce schemes so that the employees grow themselves. Everyone has to keep learning to keep up with the rapid pace of innovation. [Remember: really smart, dedicated knowledge workers are 10, 20, 30 (or even more) times better than the mediocre ones.]
    5. Employ wikinomics. Outsource. Delegate.
    6. Solve problems that people face and/or consider what makes people’s lives better/easier while designing products. Identify problems/inefficiencies.
    7. Employ gamification elements (both within the company among employees {Create an environment so that they enjoy working.} and among customers/consumers). (Even religions have elements of gamification like point system.)
    8. Employ wikinomics – get access to global talent, use open source software and hardware. Utilize cloud computing – get cheap computational and storage resources. With even small teams and limited investment, you can now accomplish things that were once possible only by governments and large organizations. It’s getting increasingly cheaper to prototype / try out new ideas. [1 (Followups)]
    9. Introduce collective “mind mapping” in brainstorming sessions.
    10. Study and analyze economies to find opportunities and ideas. (Marketing, Strategy, Economics, Systems, Networks)
    11. Competitive advantage: Advanced innovative technology, Product design, Business planning – market analysis – strategy, Wikinomics, Data Analysis – Mining, Enchantment, Motivated workforce, AI – Automation.
    12. Data Science + Human Psychology. 
    13. Organization, Operations Management 

      • Automation (of repetitive tasks)

    1. Lead with “LUV” [2]. Create emotional relationship with both employees and customers. Emotionally charged up work-force.
    2. Create a tribe around your product.





    References:


    Followups

    Personal Notes On Economics – 2 [Unofficial]

    Microeconomics in a Nutshell



    The Idea Of Promoting Non-zero Sum Games: How Winning With Others Helps You Win Bigger

    Game theory is a branch of both Economics and Mathematics. 


    When you start considering 

    • your opponents 
    • possible action choices and respective outcomes of actions of both you and your opponents

    you have entered the realm of Game Theory.

    The field has found applications in areas as diverse as Artificial Intelligence, Evolutionary BIology and Politics.

    A game where a player wins 5 points and his opponent loses 5 points is a zero-sum game.
    5+(-5)=0.

    On the other hand, in a non zero-sum game, the outcome is not zero.
    For example, if a player wins 5 points and his opponent wins 2 points, the overall outcome is 5 + 2 = 7. So here we have a win-win, non-zero sum game – both wins.

    Non-zero sum game doesn’t mean that you have to lose in order to make others win. The idea is not to think solely in terms of your profit but to develop business plans so that you win bigger by including others as “co-winners”. Here are some practical examples. 

    • Lets consider Google’s Android Platform. Google could develop a mobile operating system and develop all the apps themselves. If that happened then we would have far less apps and more importantly, less innovative apps. But Android is an open platform. Anyone can develop apps for the Android platform. So in this case, Google didn’t want to win only by themselves. Google saw you – the app developer – as a co-winner. That is the reason why we have so many App developers making great money. Of course, Google is winning. Google is taking 30% cut. And Google is winning bigger by helping you win. As more apps are available, Android Phone / Tablet sell is on the rise. So just as Google and App Developers are winning, companies who advertise on Android are reaching more customers through the apps and winning bigger. And last but not least, don’t forget the customers whose lives are getting easier and richer with all these apps that app developers are developing. They are winning too!
    • As the economic condition of the developing and undeveloped nations rises, their purchasing power rises, which in turn creates opportunities for developed countries in our increasingly interconnected and interdependent world. Developed countries have more exports and imports among themselves. Why not plan for a future where all the countries have more to export and more to import? Won’t the citizens have a better and richer life? 
    • Google and Facebook have taken initiatives to increase Internet penetration, targeting “the next billion” or so they say, which in turn increases the number of users of their services. So here is the win-win scenario. 
      • Users learn more, communicate better, use better tools [apps] and as a result earn more + living condition goes up.
      • Marketers, App developers reach more of their customers and sell more of their products.
      • Google and / or Facebook get more cut.
    • Taking initiative to reduce Climate change should be win-win.
    • Here is how mobile 
      • fights poverty
      • bypasses poor infrastructure which could have been a roadblock to development 
      • makes companies get rich.

    1. Economics: The science of choice.
    2. Utility: Satisfaction. Consumers consider utility value to choose among different goods and services. Rational agent: maximizes utility (happiness, fulfillment, satisfaction). 
    3. Diminishing marginal utility ensures that no good or service is consumed too much by a single agent.

    4. Behavioral Economics: Utility function differs according to personality, culture, society etc. (e.g., gamification: social status, fun from continuous feedback.) Cognitive biases.  
    5. Operations Research: Payoff may be far in the future, requires sequence of steps. (Behavioral: how much do people think?) Limited rationality; satisficing.
    6. Study – Welfare Economics. Adam Smith – “By pursuing his own interest he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it.” 
    7. Competition vs Co-operation (Competitive spirit is an essential impetus for individual growth. {Mastery of life and a sense of being in control} There is scarcity – compete.)
    8. Perfectly competitive market: Same product market – competition – price goes down, more innovation – more sales. {e.g., smart-phone}   

    Economics Research Topics

    1. Win-win, Non zero-sum / Positive sum games from an Economist’s point of view. How to apply win-win to different sectors. Mechanism Design.
    2. Theoretical framework for Social Business (Entrepreneurship). (Multi-dimensional nature of human beings can be integrated into the Utility theory.)
    3. Market-Production-Financial Market-GDP-Econometrics



    References

    Personal Notes On Artificial Intelligence [Unofficial]

    • Search
      • Goal State Current State
    • Informed Search
      • Choosing next state based on distance from goal state.
        • Greedy Best First Search
          • Distance of next state from goal state
        • A* Search
          • Distance to next state + Distance of next state from goal state
    • Optimization
      • Searching for maximum / minimum.
      • Modifying the current state and evaluating to see if it’s comparatively optimum than the current state.
      • Algorithms

        Hill Climbing

        Simulated Annealing 

      • Local Beam Search
        • Keeping “a number of” “current states” in memory
        • Algorithms
        • Genetic Algorithm

    • Constraint Satisfaction Search
      • Search + Constraint Propagation
    • Planning
      • Search utilizing concepts from logic.
        • logical AND
          • => decomposition of problem
    • Uncertain / Probabilistic Reasoning
    • Probabilistic Reasoning over time
      • Models
        • Hidden Markov Model
        • Dynamic Bayesian Network
    • Simple Decision Problems
      • Decision Theory = Probability Theory + Utility Theory
    • Complex Decision Problems
      • Game Theory
      • Mechanism Design
    • Reinforcement Learning
      • Inductive / Statistical Learning: Learning input/output pair for a particular problem.
      • Knowledge based learning: Adding to what you already know as you go along learning new things.
      • Reinforcement Learning: Learning sequence of behaviors from feedback.
    • Communicating with real world
      • Natural Language Processing
        • Parsing, Semantics, etc.
      • Statistical Language Processing
        • Probabilistic Language Models
          • Counting occurrence of words, N-gram models.
        • Information Retrieval, Information Extraction, Machine Translation.
      • Perception
        • Computer Vision
      • Robotics
        • Sensors
          • Localization
          • Mapping
        • Actuators
          • Degrees of freedom
        • Software Architecture
          • Reactive Architecture
          • Probabilistic Robotics [3]


    References

    1. Overview of (Artificially) Intelligent Agents
    2. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach
    3. Probabilistic Robotics (Intelligent Robotics and Autonomous Agents series) by Sebastian Thrun , Wolfram Burgard, Dieter Fox

    Personal Notes On Distributed Data Computing [Unofficial]

    • A Data computation problem requiring Multiple jobs (multiple rounds of “map” followed by “reduce”) in Hadoop [5]
      • => YARN (Hadoop) [2]
      • Apache Pig [4]
        • Provides a DSL interface that translates code into Single / Multiple Mapreduce jobs. 
    • Compare: Apache Hama: Bulk Synchronous Parallel Model [3].
      • Cycles of Parallel Computation and Synchronization.
      • Comparison:
        • “Map”: Parallel Computation
        • “Reduce”: Synchronization
        • Multiple rounds of “map” followed by “reduce”: Bulk Synchronous Parallel Model 

    Bulk Synchronous Parallel Model


    References

    Personal Notes On Harddisk Materials [Unofficial]

    • Find material 
      • Write: that can be controlled to change its state permanently until control signal is applied again (without electricity). 
      • Read: current state can be detected.
    • Types of controls:
      • Electric Control
        • STM?
      • Magnetic Control
      • Optic Control  
    • 2 different stable states. 
    • Requirement: Faster read / write.

    Personal Notes On Number Theory [Unofficial]

    • Divisibility, Prime 
    • The study of Number Theory stems from Divisibility and Prime.

      • Algebraic Number Theory
        • Congruences
      • Computational Number Theory
        • Computation Intensive problems
          • Large Primes, etc.
          • Applications:

          • Cryptography 

      • Analytic Number Theory
          • Number Theoretic Functions
          • Partition of Numbers (Generating Functions)
          • Distribution of Primes




      Note:
      • From viewing the contents of a book, you can build up knowledge ontology for that subject area.

      Personal Notes On Economics – 1 [Unofficial]

      • Certain group of people getting rich in a certain area ->
        • Inflation; rise in price in that area
          • -> Affects of Income inequality
          • Examples:
            • High Housing price in an area (San Francisco) due to lots of tech companies settling in an area (with employees having high wages) makes life hard (prices going high) for people living in that area.
            • In Teknaf, Cox’s Bazar (Bangladesh), Illegal drugs made some people filthy rich, which made the prices go up. (Affects of income inequality – made it difficult for common people) When the drug dealers got arrested, the prices went down. Within a few days prices of some products more than halved. [1]
      • Money Goods, Services
        • Some units have more money; less goods, services; Some have more goods, services; less money.
        • Money – Supply, Demand
        • Inflation.

      • Macroeconomics
        • Aggregate supply and Aggregate demand – inter-related
        • Interactions among lots of units “over time”
        • Aggregate demand declines -> Prices decline -> Firms have to spend less (less price for input goods) for producing products -> People buy more of the same products with less money -> Aggregate demand goes up -> Prices increase. => Stability in the long run (fluctuations in the short run). 


      • Better (informed) supply chain management -> Firms taking better decisions for prices, less products are wasted -> Effect on overall economy.




      References